Americans have had the usual Congressional hearings about Tech companies monopolizing markets, of various and sundry products and services that no one understands. A monopoly must be of a market, not of influence, money or a pretty face.

Congress asked wrong questions of the wrong parties. On April 1 during the 1990s a headline in a British newspaper announced that a British citizen or corporation had purchased all available intellectual property, to monopolize the intellectual property market. Since that purchase announcement, releases and sales has obviously been reduced: there is a paucity of ideas and a lack of cogency in the expression of English.

It was rumored that Jeffery Epstein and Ghislaine Maxwell had money in this purchase.

Congress should interrogate the English. They claim it is their language, and they deserve to monopolize it. They are afraid of Americanisms like harbor, rather than harbour, color rather than colour. They have poor imaginations. The English don’t understand what Americans mean when they say, I’d like to come around and knock you up.

Questions that were missing from the Congressional interrogations involved the language and the use of individual imaginations. The suppression of American and forcing everyone to learn English is a monopolistic practice that no one should suffer. Thomas Paine wondered how a small country could predominate a large country, and before ourselves we are witnesses that England is monopolizing everything. It is England that should be broken up and punished! Congress should stop grilling tech companies, which are no better than newspapers, grocery stores with discount cards, and advertisers of laxatives. Interrogate the real culprits.

Of course before the English, there was Piltdown man. 10,000 years ago a resident of those islands was buried with his pet chimpanzee. About 120 years ago the bones were discovered and thereupon the English claimed they found the missing link, on their island. Bravo for England. But there are many missing links in England. 

Before the English were the Britons and before them the Druids who prized the spiritual world and witchcraft. The Druids are truly crafty, disingenuous, devious persons; they have been known not to tell the truth. But many Druids possess great imaginations and are profound thinkers. They began the language, primitive sounds unfettered by many conjugations and almost no declensions, easy to speak because it adopted words from many languages (many of which most native speakers today don’t know and do not understand). What the Druids knew the English adopted, perfected and used: Monopoly.  

The monopoly is the language.

Quit blaming the Tech giants who with little imagination beyond a balance sheet, don’t know or understand what the market is until products are offered and picked up, and truly aren’t worried about other individuals and forces in the markets. Note, does Google have bricks and mortar stores? Much is available on line without much investment, from a large middle-corporation handling details or an individual doing it all. Note that guy on TV with the super-glue who puts together a glass boat and drifts into the water. He still can’t see the bottom of the swimming pool, lake, sea or ocean. Perhaps he’ll get there on his own. The final analysis is the tech market has a foundation of quicksand.

Yet Congress wants to interrogate the big guys who have PR coaches giving them pleasing, polite answers because members of Congress are not asking the correct questions. No one asked a question is English or a descendant of Piltdown, of a Druid, of a Briton. But some of those guys answering questions looked pre-historic. 

Congress should stop pestering the rich guys who have no foresight into intellectual property and in its promulgation. Can anyone explain why Apple has such a poor Dictionary for editing and spelling? They are nuts and bolts guys who know how to add two plus two, but wonder why other persons come up with answers different from four. 



Why write a story of surfing on Waikiki with paragraphs of description, some one thousand words long. Jack London one writes a thousand words a day. That paragraph was a day’s effort.

Surfing in Hawaii in 1907 – I don’t why anyone would stick to straight description. There’s a lot going on, especially for a new surfer, DUDE: Time of day, place in the ocean – quarter mile off shore or doing the bunny waves closer to the beach. Light, the trees, the terrain, other human surfers, the colors of the water as time shifted with sun, and anything in the water like sharks, phantom sensations of the unknown, or anything else. Anyone going into the water off Waikiki has to sense some of this stuff going on. Not Jack London. He describes, poorly what a surfer, novice he is, is doing, thinking, seeing, hoping, etc. Every 1,000 words is writing going no where. The writing and the story are dead when it hits the page. I don’t care what anyone thought 110 years ago. Now don’t believe the excellent Introduction by A. Grove Day, who sups up each story, overstating its qualities. 

DITTO, South Sea tales, are not good tales. “The Inevitable White Man” is a regrettable tale, and Jack begins with a incident of a white man being killed, militated or gone absent while visiting the South Sea Islands. So Jack had done his research for the reading audience, but where may his characters go thereafter? It is too formulaic to read: Those South Sea Islanders are dangerous; they are heathens; they kill members of the Caucasian race. Perhaps they kill persons from other races too, but 160 years ago no one kept statistics about those deaths.

Jack’s observations are reminiscent of Will Rogers, who was of Native American heritage. I paraphrase, I sort of regret my ancestors did not take a more military stand on Plymouth Rock. By the nineteenth century South Sea Islanders apparently knew that story and followed that advice.

Jack’s Tales are dislike the premiere novel of a South Sea Adventure among the natives by an American, Herman Melville. TYPEE. Born in 1819 Melville took to the Sea early. Strong-willed and independent he disliked ship life. Supposedly he jumped ship on an island, got into the nature among the natives. He had been warned not to go among the Typee clan (tribe). They were cannibals. Melville was pursued; the ship had a small company. Melville wandered far, but when natives found him he was greeted in a friendly way. He wondered about rumors when he learned he had landed amongst the Typee, entirely peaceful. They understood Melville was on the run, and gave him shelter, a hut, a woman, food and security. He joined in work and participated in community projects. It was paradise among naked people. Melville does not describe his garb; the reader is allowed to infer the fewer the clothes the better. Melville resisted native offers to tattoo his body. He wandered everywhere. Toward the end of the story unbeknownst to Melville, an American whaling ship was looking for able seamen and planned to rescue him. More offers to tattoo, more evasions, more evenings with the guys and many at the hut with his women, life was pleasant. He finally ventured to far into a taboo area and discovered human dismembering and signed of cannibalism. 

Melville knew he was in trouble. At the hut with the love of his life, Melville had to escape. A commotion on the beach, boats with white men approached. They have gifts for the white sailor. Melville gets away and swims perused by angry friends who want to kill him. He makes the boats and climbs aboard. He tosses gifts and reaches out to the natives to say good-bye; Melville conks a few on the head.

In the 1840s, younger than 25 years, Melville gives the facts and tells story without opinions, comments or judgments be-marring a simple tale. Some of it is coincidental and convenient, but its truth comes out.

Jack is a creature of his times. He is careless with words, observations and judgments. His people – characters – seem fictional.    


Jules Archer

Now that I’ve gone through The Plot To Seize The White House, I realize I’ve read about the greatest American named, Smedley. Before, if I had heard that name, I would have thought he was a cartoon character of days yore, or one dreamed up right now.

Of course, it does not surprise me that Smedley’s place in history is buried. He was an isolationist and a pacifist throughout the 1930s. Lindbergh took most of that oxygen; Smedley did not make it into World War Two. Finally, as Lindbergh realized it was unpopular to be against the Fascists as policies and attitudes changed within the United States.

For me the value of the book described American foreign policy for the forty years from 1890. Oddly enough, Theodore Roosevelt was all-in during the Spanish-American War, but within a decade he was ruing his decision to takeover the Philippines. One reason the Americans went in was to stop the competition taking over – the Japanese and the Germans, not allies at the time. Taft became governor of the colony, and took a horse-tour which drew the remark of Taft’s final report: “What happened to the horse?” Having been governor, Taft figured he knew how to fix things, just like Doug MacArthur believed his military prowess could defend those islands in 1941. They were both morons.

Descriptions of small military actions and involvements for 40 years from 1890 confirmed the poor diplomacy of the American State Department. We adopted French and British ways although those nations frequently took entire lands, to scattered benefits: Hong Kong did not exist before the British arrived in 1839, and Shanghai was a mid-sized sea-side outpost. Each is near the mouth of a large river. American involvement was late and tiny, but we played by the rules: I believe the American government paid the French for their concession to build the Panama Canal at the time Panama separated from Columbia.

What The Plot does not explain, sometimes countries did not have any government in place to deal with internal problems or make foreign investment possible. The face of American diplomacy became the Marines, the Navy or Army. Note before World War One Pershing was trying to track down Pancho Villa in Northern Mexico. The Mexican government did not have control over that area until 1919 or later. Villa was killed in 1923 which settled things. Yet, today the Mexican cartels have established themselves there. The cartels are the only government.

Times were different. The book spends no time giving those settings. Herbert Hoover mining engineer provided employment to many foreigners. Along with mines he built roads and railroads, and made sure products could be exported to the world. He made tens of millions of dollars. ($75,000,000?)

It was a type of foreign aid program inexpensively backstopped by the military. Investments were made and natives rose: Chile, mining; Venezuela, oil; Egypt, cotton. For Europeans they spared the expense of the Marines and business diplomacy, by colonization. There were horrors like the Belgiums in the Congo. Yet the world situation caused Mark Twain to observe: “The British are mentioned in the Bible. Blessed are the meek, for they shall inherit the earth.” All that colonization was well and cheap until the Europeans began fighting other Europeans for concessions and land: An issue over British Guiana in the 1890s brought the British much closer to the Americans, being the bedrock of the special relationship. The Boar War on its heels was destructive and expensive. Further into the Twentieth Century concessions and colonies became untenable changing policies for the British, Dutch, French, Italians, Turks, Spaniards, Portuguese and Americans (copper in Chile in 1970).

The whole set of business arrangements was imperfect and unfair to natives by today’s standards. Yet today’s circumstances are dissimilar. There were about a billion humans on earth in 1900, and many foreign military units were untrained. That’s how smaller forces of Marines could make a difference. How would any of those people, natives and Marines, do on earth with eight and a half billion humans?

I don’t fault Smedley for knowing he was defending American financial and investment interests – persons and activities he found distasteful and disagreed with. There were a lot of frauds which completely exploited natives and investors. Laws were not yet written. The British used their excellent espionage services. Americans were lucky if they knew where the country was. (The same ignorance prevailed into the early 1960s with Vietnam.) Americans did sent a lot of do-gooders – Christian ministers and some journalists: “Doctor Livingston, I presume,” said Harold Stanley of The New York World.    

That was Smedley’s world – innocent, individual and somewhat messy. His Marines were needed, but the whole historical context is not found in this book. Smedley’s protestations in the Thirties seemed to come from no where. It is inadequate history to cite a poll saying most Americans were against foreign intervention, when the country had been using its military in like situations for 120 years. 

Finally, about Smedley, as an individual, what did he do to establish the Marines was an entity, as he rose through the ranks? Certainly he was beloved and could lead fellow Marines, but once he was gone what was left? I don’t know. I raise this point because during the Civil War, U.S. Grant identified and promoted men who led the U.S. Army into the 1890s. Smedley was not political enough to make such changes.

I’ve read books about investigations, and I’m not surprised that this investigation failed: There was no legislation to remedy anything, which can be a point: Investigations lead to nothing. In the last 30 years someone ought to have proposed a constitutional amendment defining and limiting Executive Privilege. Nope. So in our life time we’ve seen a lot of investigations, however worthy, begun and gone no where.

Specifically, about The Plot there is no explanation about The American Legion and its power. It was a rival organization to the Veterans of Foreign Wars. There needs to be at least 10,000 words to explain its organization and power which the book does not give.

I got nothing about The American Legion from The Plot. It seems an essential part of the story – activities before and after the 1930s, during World War Two, and words explaining after the War. By the Fifties the Right splintered e.g. John Birch was a missionary in China, one of the persons Americans innocently sent overseas to preach religion. Once dead by the dreaded Chinese communists (the Nationalists were good murderers), John Birch became a martyr.   


There’s no place like home, so Dorothy reminds us. Who is she kidding? Nobody in America. “Home, home on the range,” is a celebration of being in nature, not at home, play with deer and antelope, animals in every yard in New York. And every American knows a store, a restaurant, a bar, or sometimes Home Depot is a second home. That’s grim.

Home is not about family. Home is not about conflict. Home is not about tranquility. Home is not a sanctuary. Home is a place of reality, where each American must look in the mirror and be reconciled with the person causing the image. And homes, however comfortable by magazine standards, does not change these perceptions. Today are scattered sketches of Americans being at home – bored, disturbed, anxious, need sort a familiar spot but to where, when and how often. I’ve heard an American say what he wanted to do during retirement: Do what I want and travel so he and his wife should live life a bit.  

Because that American was moving a thousand miles to live in a new dream home, I asked, “Do you have to travel to live?” Traveling is tough business. Before Corona one had an itinerary, somewhat predictable, and an accompanying schedule to maintain and hours to heed, all like going to elementary school with bells. Travel required strict adhesion to time, or a traveller might  be left behind. Days are rare when one can go and write a diary like an author writing a book. One review of a travel book was perfect, “He has produced a talkie, so dip and skim.” There’s a lot of dipping and skimming in travel writing today.

Travelers have to live out of suitcases; some travelers have to carry their own luggage. Every day travelers see something obtainable in one location in the world but not elsewhere. Should that object be bought as a memory, a treasure, or as an item to forget and disremember its significance not to be conveyed to anyone in the family? It will hang around home until charity gets it.

Home is where there are disagreements, which might be or are not rooted in reality. Fear and terror to families using the home, the family relies on memories to cover deep-seeded hatreds, irrational arguments which go on forever, where incidents are misremembered and placed long before, or long after their actual occurrences, and always a place of great spontaneities which flash rage and idiocies but are unhelpful to understand the past of anything. Unsettled uncertainty of home and its persons drives individuals into a loathing relationship with home, impressions, superstitions and hauntings by which one person can beleaguer as much of the population of the earth as can heard it. These preoccupations make home great stores of psychological ill-effects, violence and bewilderments: God made me do it. I did not have control over myself or my senses. 

Don’t blame God, blame yourself and your shortcomings. It is your house and home.  Yet, everything at home that makes a being human grinds against definitions of domestic bliss, tranquility and peace.

During these days of corona Americans are so antsy to get up and get away from spouses, children, parents, visitors, members of the family that the grand assumptions of conventional wisdom are wrong. Americans resent, hate and despise home. They are claustrophobic about being stationary, stuck to one parcel of land, a building and its inhabitants. Open the country, renew the virus, I want to risk dying wherever the cost (and kill everyone at home!). 

Americans have forgotten: If your best friend – someone you love and hold close – were sick with Corona or anything else, would you visit that person if the disease might make you or members of your family sick for two months? The answer is no, you would not visit. You would not want to visit if you could not protect yourself from being a carrier. And the friend, if it be true friendship, wouldn’t want you to visit and possibly give the disease to you or to others. A sick friend would urge you to stay home and protect yourself. 

These are circumstances facing us today with Corona. The only difference is, Americans are not going to visit their best friends which they can do already. INSTEAD, Americans want to go out amongst strangers, in perfect or ill-health and all exercising various degrees of care for themselves or others. That is not trusting fellow Americans. That is reckless and a conscious disregard for the rights and the lives of others.  

Corona is the perfect example of a public health emergency. Americans being in and about with one another – concerts, sporting events, public observances, theaters, political meetings, religious services, community service organizations, on-and-on, as individual Americans do not know who is out there and who they are meeting. Does anyone have a cough, a temperature, an ache, or any other undisclosed symtom. Like Tuberculosis and its asylums 130 years ago, like the flu 102 years ago, like the measles and polio, care had to be taken to protect the great American people, every individual as we have recently learned in our way into the future. Anything short of that reverses the course of centuries, taking human beings into medieval times when subjects of a monarchy or a despot were not citizens and friends to one another. They were units to be discarded! 

The attitudes of Americans begin at home, being at ease in that setting and teaching each self and our families discipline, cleanliness and charity. Find solace and peace there, and the country will benefit from the Corona experience. 


Mika, the golden girl of Morning Joe, does not know how to ask a string of questions to get a story.

Witness her interview of Joe Biden, an embarrassment to the program and to journalists everywhere. Mika asked about Joe Biden’s papers at the University of Delaware. Were employee records and papers at the University? Biden answered employee records were with a federal agency. How did Biden know employee records were where? That’s where employee records are sent. How did Biden know the University did not have employee records. Because employee records go to the federal agency.

Mika could not get by her short list of questions. Biden said employee records are confidential. They contain private information, not open to the public. Mika did not understand what almost every American knows. An individual’s employee records do not belong to Biden or any other employing senator. The employer is the United States government. Papers at the University belong to Biden, not to the government.

If Mika had asked, I’m sure Biden would have explained that in his Senate Office employee records were kept separate from Biden’s papers. Employee records, including tax information and everything else, may have gone to the federal agency before the employee left Biden’s office. We’ll never know. Mika did not ask.

Mika’s next big question was, where was the complaint the accuser filed against Biden. Biden said he learned about the complaint recently; he did not know about it in 1993. A New York Times investigation said there was no complaint, and no one in Biden’s Senate office heard about the complaint, or had ever heard the accuser complain within Biden’s office. By persistently asking about the complaint, Mika implied that Biden had the complaint, or a copy of it. NONSENSE. The accuser never gives copies of accusations to the perpetrator. Copies of the complaint would be in a federal agency, or in an agency with investigative oversight. Biden answered that he asked the primary Archive to produce anything resembling a complaint against him. Note that the complaint may be procured without also producing the employee records which Mika has initially stumbled over. Biden and all Americans await a response from the Archives.

On this issue of the Complaint and the papers at the University, in an aftermath rescue plan, Joe and Willie tried to salvage Mika’s interview. If Biden opened his papers at the University, journalists might find an interoffice memo where the accuser’s accusations was discussed: Biden wasn’t being honest. If pigs had wings, they would fly. If Americans drank bleach, they could kill the virus. Don’t believe The New York Times. Don’t believe staffers who said nothing like that ever happened. Just speculate like is done on Fox.

Biden said during the interview that the allegations should be believed and investigated until resolved. Biden denied the assault ever happened. The New York Times investigated and disbelieves. Whatever investigation remains should carry on. The election is in November, six months off. Biden has always supported investigations in these matters.

Parallels with Brett Kavanaugh? Brett was accused during confirmation hearings. About a week of news, a FBI quickie investigation of three days, and Kavenaugh was confirmed to the Supreme Court. Reaction: At the time I considered the Eastern Establishment was protecting Brett and like Al Pacino in Scent of a Woman, its was time use a flamethrower to burn the Establishment down. Other persons claimed there were other incidences involving Brett at Yale and elsewhere; they were going to write books. Today, some people want to impeach Brett – I’m not sure why: Bad legal decisions or further evidence proving bad-behavior.

Mika needed rescuing following the interview with Biden, but Willie and Joe were hamstrung: uncertain in facts, sloppy in analyses and unwarranted praise for Mika who could not ask anything beyond three questions.

Mika ought to read more. Like her colleagues at Fox, she has to know that being blonde, having pearly teeth and clean skin does not make a journalist. 


April 5, 2020 The Los Angeles Times ran a front page story about wet markets in China and authorities not enforcing bans, much, allowing supplies to flow into human society. Law enforcement is not perfect in China. That State would put me in jail for writing that. However, supplies of bats (prime source for coronavirus), bear bile (from pandas?), and feces from many species of animals are sold. Those wholesome ingredients are used to concoct potions, magic powders, dime doses and secret sauces. Humm, humm, Good! There are cures for tummy ache, head ache and crotch rot.

I believed and hoped that when China had its 1949 revolution, scientific socialism of Karl Marx, Frederick Engels, V.I. Lenin and others did away with quaint remedies that had survived since prehistoric times. Many of these contents were removed from the civilized worlds millennia ago. The Arabs and other Semites were very good at identifying and using what was good for human beings. When witches used insect parts, eye of newt, fat of don, breath of rush, they were correctly burned at the stake.

But apparently not in China where market medicines are big business. It’s a bad, disgusting, dirty business. Can anyone in the world think of China when these practices are sanctioned and promoted: Money is to be made while everyone, everywhere, gets sick and some die.

In 1906 Upton Sinclair wrote about a man dropping into a vat of grinding meat in a plant. Americans were outraged. The National government created the Food and Drug Administration. I don’t know if my great-grandfather or my grandfather ate any of the meat processed at the plant described in The Jungle. It may be why I don’t feel well today. Sinclair always ran for Governor of California in 1934, as a socialist. He lost. Yet The Jungle endures.

Is it time for China to come into the Twenty-First Century, and end its support and sponsorship of prehistoric medicine?




Deutsche Bank has had a bad reputation for a long time. Almost eighty years (80) ago in the movie Casablanca Rick is at his chess board monitoring patrons allowed to enter the gambling room in the casino. It is not long into the movie when the follow exchange happens. Please excuse my missing a line, a bit of description of action or a word from the dialogue.

Rick sees a Well-Dressed Man wearing a flower at the entrance and shakes his head no. 

Doorman: Sorry, Sir, this is a private room.

Doorman steps out and closes the door behind him. 

Well-Dressed Man (incredible): Who do you think I am? I know there is gambling in there! It is no secret. You can’t keep me out of there.

Well-Dressed Man pushes on the door; it opens.

Rick steps out.

Doorman: This gentleman—

Rick Yes, what is the trouble?

Well-Dressed Man: I’ve been in every gambling hall between Honolulu and Berlin. 

(pulls out wallet, hands card to Rick) If you think I’m going to be kept out of a saloon like this, you’re very much mistaken. 

Peter Lorrie (holding cigarette) bushes through door congestion.

Lorrie: (To Well-Dressed Man) Excuse me please. (Looks at Rick) Hello, Rick. 

He gets nod of approval from Rick.

Rick looks at card and rips it up. He gives it back to the Well-Dressed Man: You cash is good at the bar. 

Well-Dressed Man: You know who I am?

Rick: I do. You’re lucky the bar is open to you. 

Well-Dressed Man: This is outrageous! I shall report it to the _____. (turns stomps off, tosses pieces of card in the air.) 

Rick returns to his table. Peter Lorrie intercepts him.

Lorrie: You know, watching you just now with the Deutsche Bank, one would think you’ve been doing this all your life.

Rick: What makes you think I haven’t?

Lorrie: Oh—–When you first came to Casablanca, I thought —

Rick: You thought what?

Lorrie: What right do I have to think?

elizabeth warren/sarah palin

Today’s Sarah Palin is Elizabeth Warren. This revelation arrived after watching Saturday Night Live: Preppy, smiling woman utters nonsense but offers life advice. Trillions of dollars are fantasy figures like spending the money before winning the lottery.

I’m not certain that Elizabeth Warren knows where Russia is, but Sarah Palin does. I hope Elizabeth Warren’s trademark sweaters are not of foreign origin, like Canada: Never wear a stain-collecting sweater twice. I have yet to see Elizabeth Warren’s family, whilst Sarah Palin’s family was foisted upon us. The names of children were somewhat natural: Branch, Leaf, Root.

There is a difference between the women. Sarah Palin is a master of adjectives. Using adjectives to explain policies supports a variegated life. Great or Grand is a question of the ages.

Elizabeth Warren likes incomprehensibility: Use antitrust laws to break up tech companies. Question One: What is the monopolized market – Intellectual Property? Decades back a British newspaper warned in a April 1 headline that a media mogul had purchased all intellectual property in the world. Human beings not laughing were terrified. Prove that the barriers of entry for intellectual property have risen so high, become burdensome and are noisome and onerous that Americans have stopped thinking and expressing themselves.

So Sarah and Liz, go to it Girls!


John Le Carre

This short book is instructive and a delight to read. 

1. For writers who have wondered about the differences between detective stories and espionage tales, this story, having both, is an example.

2.  For writing wondering how much dialogue to put into a story and where, this story    presents  dialogue judiciously well. There are no frills. The dialogue advances the story.

3.  Writers wondering about description by using adjectives, a phrase or a prepositional phrase, the scenery and the characters are further developed by description.

This writing advances each story well until the stories break into their constituent parts. It seems like a free for all, except bad guys (or spies) are identified or caught and the success of the espionage is identified and analyzed. 

The story revolves around the death of a British civil servant who is identified as a possible security risk. An interview with George Smiley causes his East German handlers to kill the civil servant and everyone else associated with him. Murder is committed to insure security (espionage) but some of the acts are unnecessary and criminal. Not much is investigated about each course. Smiley predicts who will be the next victims. I suppose the story does not need Smiley’s report to his superiors in the last chapter: It is a reminder that espionage is a dangerous business.   


During the Vietnam War the refrain of the British or other European idiots was popular in the United States: My country, right or wrong. It was only fitting that a Briton, George Orwell where I found it, offered a correction: My mother, drunk or sober.

Patriotism in the United Staes does not mean supporting the President. Every American who believes Lyndon Baines Johnson (LBJ) or Richard Nixon deserved complete support of the American people all the time, should stand now. From the number of sitting Americans, it seems no Americans are willing to commit to LBJ or Nixon, right, left or wrong. 

Indeed, those sitting Americans have common sense and a sense of history. They are cynical when they hear Trump sputter about many diverse things, frequently unconnected, disjointed and ill-put; They is no reason anyone would support Trump. He has a credibility gap which is filled with irrationality and growing wider. Hearing Trump is like listening to LBJ tell the American people that he is sending another 75,000 troops to Vietnam to win that War.