Progression of Excellence



To a post on Facebook about this newly elected member of the House of Representatives, I urged that that she do more than enter tweet-sized statements, offer more than a headline, or give words behind a sound bite. Write and explain. Put forth policies that reveal reasoning and present the mind, not the mouth, to the public. 

An admirer, a devotee or perhaps a disciple of AOC replied, “Why apply that to her before any of the other people stealing from us.”

AOC is a politician in the business of making views, not sentences, known. She is new to the political arena; she is will be in the House of Representatives. She is voluble and engaging. She is 28 years old, too young to challenge the establishment in New York state: Senators Schummer and Gillabrandt, plus Governor Cuomo. 

Should AOC go beyond offering easy to read popular quotes, provocative tweets, enlivening sound bites, attractive slogans or alluring headlines? She can distinguish herself by employing methods that her peers eschew. Write out and think through policies, not delights for the masses or the church choir, but something that Americans can understand, adopt and support. 

She does not want be on the fringe, agitating to the true believers who put her on a pedestal and bow as in a personality cult: The leader demands that nothing is questioned; nothing is discussed.  Edicts are issued and the Big Person carries all authority. It’s a rush but forfeits responsibility because the leader is not accountable. The followers end up counting angels on the head of a pin.

Americans have tried a person of this ilk, the OT (not an abbreviation for Overtime). He spouts off the latest dribbles from a drooling mouth, always trying to please homies from the ‘hood. 



How does an enthusiastic youth turn against aspirations and stop doubting and questioning?

   “There are wonderful, helpful people, and there are others who more concerned with how things affect them and/or the institution that they represent. This realization was a little disappointing because with my youthful, idealistic, student experience I had a higher expectation for how the University should be run and treat its children.  

   However, we have to realize that it is a government bureaucracy in which the people who work there are very human, and want to protect themselves and the institution.  After a lot of years in the private sector… I… worked [at the University] for a while, and I saw it firsthand.  It was both good and bad, just like business and life.


  For me, I had to take off my rose colored glasses and accept the reality that the University is not heaven and not everyone is an angel.

This quote from recent correspondence reveals the absolute decline of a human being and his facilities, a man who is easily complacent and self-satisfied. The subject being discussed was history, and this response reminds me of a proverb popular in the Soviet Union: “The future is certain. It is the past that is uncertain.” In other words the bureaucracy will determine what the past is, and thereby the future is assured.

This is not the only discussion I’ve had with Boomers on this point. After some talk, I asked a successful businesswoman whether there was in her life anything she would change. She looked ahead, out the window with some glow in her eyes and said, “No, I don’t think so.” She wouldn’t change a word; she would not change an act; she would not change a relationship; she would not change a thought, a reflection or a wish.

If presented with the argument of this writing, both persons would insist, I didn’t mean that. I’m being misquoted. Yet these persons are approaching a brain-dead status because they are accepted what-is and failed to rail against what-could-be. They are sell- outs.

Each relies on age, experience and wisdom. I have the judgment based upon experience. Right away, these persons are wrong. Is each satisfied with the world as it is, whether it depends upon what is happening is the South China Sea, Washington DC or across the street? Mark Twain had advice for listening to such people: “Never argue with stupid people, they will drag you down the their level and then beat you with experience.”

It obvious each boomer lacks human qualities – inquisitiveness, curiosity, imagination, foresight and ideas. What sort of world do these individuals want their children and grandchildren to grow up into and struggle through: A bureaucracy that can’t be changed because a predecessor-in-interest was too lazy, incompetent or complacent to work to change the way the society or bureaucracy worked twenty-five or fifty years ago?

Wisdom is not fed only by experience. That’s a cop-out. It was Mark Twain who observed,

“We should be careful to get out of an experience only the wisdom that is in it and stop there lest we be like the cat that sits down on a hot stove lid. She will never sit down on a hot stove lid again and that is well but also she will never sit down on a cold one anymore.” What is true for cats (sitting on a cold stove lid on a hot summer day is soothing) is also true for human beings. Persons relying solely on experience frequently fall into cliches – events are inevitable, or history repeats itself. Again Mark Twain clarified, “History does not repeat itself but it rhymes.” Experience likes rhymes. That is why people cling and linger on experiences When old or old thinking, they rely on experience – today is like it was when I was young. How so? What did you think then? Be honest. Why did you change? Be honest. Was that change good? Be honest.

As the quote form the correspondence indicates, experience plus age lets a human being pass, let it go, let people do their own thing, accept any malarky a bureaucracy, a society, a group or an individual proposes. It is too difficult to change the way people think, do or feel. We know that. Tell every person in the Civil Rights Movement how difficult it is to change the attitudes and ways of their fellow Americans. It was easier to pass Constitutional Amendments, 13, 14 and 15.

Yet hiring or having a person with experience who is supposed to be motivated, have imagination and knowledge plus propose new ways to address problems is never assured. That experienced person may have given up. The work, the bureaucracy, is too difficult. That person expended energy and imagination when using drugs and unthinking enthusiasm earlier in life: Now that person is settled: I grew up. I’ve given up. I am a tired, useless, old human being who likes to watch life pass by. Hiring a person like that only adds another layer to the bureaucracy.



What does AOC have to do with the boomers in Part Two? Nothing, and perhaps everything. It is easy to go along with the bureaucracy. It’s not just business and political entities

but also a social organization. AOC can lose everything and disappear into the Federal Government. She will part of the group, the power elite, a giddy promotion for a fresh face. She will become rich, successful and powerful. She will be popular, on TV and famous. Who does not want all that?

What’s happening in her mind? AOC is young and for the reminder of life she should read, ponder, write, and thereafter act and express herself about thoughts and beliefs. It is clear few of her peers, Left or Right, can or are doing that.

For the boomers? Can old people change their ways? It takes energy to be curious and inventive and stick to it. It takes energy to read and think about ideas and issues comprehended and how they might be applied today to better the future. It is not enough to travel. An acquaintance said in my presence: “I went to the Galapagos Islands.” Before I could ask about differences of species on each island (which Darwin noted), she said, “And then I saw Machu Picchu.” I did not ask about the recently discovered Inca city west of Machu. I figured she was happy seeing the highlights of South America. Some people are truly the living dead, so deep in a rut that they are buried.

I got into a tiff with a woman on Facebook. I made a joke about marijuana usage, and she told me if I weren’t using pot, I would never be part of the Twenty-First Century. Sorry I can’t join Elom Musk. I did not respond to that view – you’re lucky you got out of the Nineteenth Century. Pot and its derivatives are not the drugs to make the Twenty-First Century better. Going forward, all human beings, as hard as it may be, should keep as many of their wits within them. The tale of the Twenty-First Century will be, the person with the most wits wins.  



I read this book because the title suggests the text tells about writing novels. I read the introduction and learned that the author was writing a novel, Good Faith. About 270 pages were finished; another 125 needed writing. The print size in that novel is small. The author was going to put down loads of words. From what I gather Good Faith is a novel describing business transactions.

I go to many library book sales, and on the last day, the sellers offer books for a dollar a bag: 3 or 4 cents a piece. Many of those books were best sellers two (2) years ago. Some of this author’s books were on the tables. I asked a seller at one of the sales and she said, “We sell what remains to a recycler who pulps them. We get four cents a pound.”

I question the author’s assertion on page 22 of 13 Ways:

“Don’t like the author? Throw the book away. Think this obscure book is better
than that famous one? State you opinion. Disagree with the very respected
author? You may, because the book is in your hands, in your power, which
make you the author’s equal. But the book itself you cannot destroy.”

I believe that authors who are novelists want to write and publish, because they want the text and the product (the book) to survive longer than a few years. Admittedly, there are authors who generate piles of pages of no distinction, destined for a library book sale table. But those authors have a paycheck. Pay no more than five cents for their books.

It should also be noted that non-fiction authors, writing on the same subjects as novelists, write in clearer language about complicated situations. With efficient writing they are understandable. Those books (e.g. Michael Lewis) are rarely found at library sales, and never do they lie around for the bag sale.

Books by those authors are the competition novelists must fact today. The only reasons to avoid non-fiction and entertain fiction are (1) to avoid a libel suit; and (2) if the author knows the setting and events but needs characters to bring the story alive, make up the characters and it’s a novel.

Smiley of 13 Ways asks whether the novel is art. Supposedly, it was once considered not art, but the medium makes it art: Communication by one person of people, events and dialogue. The finished product is a representation of its contents and the relationships made therein. It is the like representations found in paintings, sculpture and music.

No particular use of language is required. A major point of Huckleberry Finn was Mark Twain purportedly write the dialogue in dialect. The grammar is of the frontier. The words are simple as Twain said himself: “At a dime a word I never use metropolis when I can use city.” Obscenities come from anywhere: Royal Nonesuch.

The author of 13 Ways prefers other writers who sanitize their stories and settings: Edith Wharton, Henry James. Certainly there are dilemmas and crises in those works, but no one can classify any of those situations existential. Certainly, Virginia Woolf, a favorite of the author of 13 Ways. is out there. Her brain activity was an active mix of motion and communication, the wandering around in a common demented state after she writes a topic sentence. In the end that unsteady, unstable mood became the goal of her life.

The Novels and History chapter glides over obvious, salient and important points and books. Novels represent their times: Uncle Tom’s Cabin. But Melville was writing about the United States of America in Moby Dick, the consummate power of hate. He was writing about the American Civil War, coming a decade later. There are a few clues. At the end the ship is broken up, the “wood was American.” Hemingway is not mentioned in 13 Ways, but I’ve never heard anyone say x, y or z in For Whom the Bells Toll is phony. Willa Cather also is not mentioned in 13 Ways, but when the local boy dies in the World War, Cather grabs the reader’s emotion for all eternity. The author of 13 Ways includes F.Scott Fitzgerald and The Great Gatsby in her list of 100 novels. She says it is not a masterpiece; she generously notes only a few flaws. She should tell the truth. The Great Gatsby was submitted as a draft and never finished (including many sentences) by a drunk. It is not worth reading.

Also not discussed in the History chapter is Sir Walter Scott, an author referred to in the text and the 100 novels. Mark Twain said that Sir Walter was the cause of the American Civil War. Twain was referring to the feudal society Southerners had constructed which included jousts, armor and sword competitions. American historians (Clement Eaton) have looked at Twain’s observations. They understand the influence of Sir Walter on the South, but they are not willing to put all the blame on the English author.

Finally, I infer that 13 Ways raises a point but the author does not want to discuss it. Compare and contrast Virginia Woolf to F. Scott Fitzgerald. Did Virginia do drugs? Illness and disability beset both writers. But today we celebrate neither writer as disabled or handicapped.

Oversights in 13 Ways include a passage beginning on page 235. Contrary advice is better: A writer who has completed a first draft should go through the manuscript and correct spelling, run-on sentences, grammar and everything else that distracts the eye or interferes with ingesting the content. Once those corrections are made, it may be easier to determine how to fix or fill the text for an improved second draft.

Also, Mark Twain had a story about marriage (contra, 164), The Diary of Adam, The Diary of Eve. Adam notices the creature with the long hair; she names everything; contrary to his advice she talks to the snake. Also, it is a grave oversight to overlook Josef Conrad.

Any writer, new or young, who believes he must develop a style is writing wrong. The job of the young or new writer is to communicate clearly and completely. Style is variable. Set a story in Los Angeles today. Set a story in New York City. If the words in both stories are the same, the writer has failed. Style will also change with time: Tell events in three days; tell events in a week. Style differs when actions occur over a year. AND SOMETIMES, a writer cannot make determinations amounting to style until the second or third drafts.

Reviews, page 264. Authors like reviews to rely on adjectives which are malleable and meaningless. Reviews which trash the book are filled with nouns and verbs.

The author of 13 Ways should change her opinion of Huckleberry Finn. She has read the novel before, but she should obtain the 2001 Critical Edition from the University of California for the most complete text. She twice mentions Mark Twain’s novel, Huckleberry; she claims the book is boring. She relies on her 1996 piece in Harper’s magazine.

When Jane Smiley becomes more broadly read and her reading comprehension improves, she will believe Huckleberry Finn is the best novel she has ever read.

HINT: Begin with the most widely read book in the English language.
HINT, HINT: Determine what “These spiritual gifts” from chapter Three of Finn refer to.

DEAR MARK TWAIN – Letters from his Readers

Apparently everyone in the nineteenth century is like present-day readers. Readers wrote to Mark Twain,
1. To get autographs in return (usually unsuccessful);
2. For advice about careers and writing;
3. To praise or criticize a Twain writing;
4 To superimpose one of their recent experiences on an episode in one of Twain’s works.
5. To learn where to buy the best editions of Twain’s work. [There letters were always
passed onto appropriate persons or businesses.]
6. To announce a new charity, or ask Twain to support publicly an existing charity.

Twain himself does not handle contact with the public well. He takes everything head-on, matter-of-factly and briefly, the tenor of the correspondence. The letters hardly enter the literary world where Twain works – essays, short stories. articles, novels and notes to close friends (Rogers, Howells). Twain does not purposefully neglect the common crowds; there are only 200 letters in this volume which seem representative. Twain may have received 200 or more letters per week. He had to allocate his time.

I cannot thoroughly recommend this book; I cannot completely disregard this book. The text tells a successful author almost everything to expect from a reading public. I was surprised that nineteenth century readers were interested in further stories of Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn. Twain tried many; published a few. But platform fiction was not his forte. [Imagine Huck and Tom in the 1850s in the antebellum South; Consider Hank and Tom participating in the Civil War from 1861-1865; Dream of Hank and Tom during the Guilted Age.]


Don Trump is upset that his wife’s photos have been reshopped on the Internet. He is threatening to spill the goods on Heidi Cruz, who will be praying in any photographs. If it comes down to casting aspersions by Don or Heidi, ADVANTAGE to Heidi. She likely knows where all the bodies are buried in the foundations of his buildings.

It does not upset Don Trump that his wife’s photos are rereleased: She’s living proof that 40 is the new 20, and that she, indeed, is a female of the human species.

It bothers Don Trump that he looks like he does. He appears like an orange, fat, old Buddha. Comparing photos, everyone will recognize him for who he is, a dirty old man. (He did say he wanted to date his daughter.) Now everyone has to hear Don Trump grieve, and they will wonder where is the substitute hubby. Can anyone who is beautiful, graceful and calm ever go for an offensive, loud mouthed, abrasive oaf? Does part of Don Trump’s deal making abilities include robbing the cradle, or is there a Pygmalion effect here?

One point must be made for the American people and decency. In the photographs Mrs. Trump wears few clothes. No where should similar photos of Don Trump be published. Instead, he should abide Mark Twain, Clothes make the man. And Twain explained why, Naked people have little or no influence in society.


On March 18, 2016, Second D, page 5, Adam Hochschild ventured into an area where he lacks expertise, knowledge and imagination. He described why Mark Twain’s Life On the Mississippi need not be read in its entirety. Being familiar with Twain’s work, I am surprised. I’ve read works from historians competing with Hochschild for readers, and I now wonder if I ought to read his books. The world is more multilayered than Mr. Hochschild appreciates. Regarding Life On the Mississippi he has two grand oversights.

Hochschild stumbled upon the fact that Life On is a companion book to Huckleberry Finn. That novel is firmly set in the 1830s. Life On presents contemporary observations which were added to Twain’s previous publication of Old Times on the Mississippi (@1875).

In 1882 books and basic knowledge of the Mississippi River Valley were scare. Twain had written about 25 chapters of the novel but needed a refresher course about locations and the sense and feel of the South, and the river. In 1882 he traveled up the river, noting events and occurrences, present time to 45 years before. Not much had changed.

Life On came from Clemen’s notebooks and scrapbooks. Prior to William Faulkner’s observation about the past in the South, Clemens realized in the South that nothing was ever the past. In 1884 he told the world that in Life On.

The second point is what the South did with its history, this time and subject is described by a prominent American historian who quotes Life On the Mississippi from a late passage. SPOILER ALERT! Hochschild’s fans should stop reading NOW!

…Colonel Marshall graphically described the scene demonstrating Lee’s
posture and his forward wave of the hand as Jackson rode away.The
movement became the subject of a painting completed in 1869…Mark
Twain studied the original in New Orleans and reflected on the importance
of explicitly telling people the retrospectively defined meaning of what they
they see when one offers them a historical representation…Unless the
painting were properly labeled Twain said, it might readily be taken to
portray “Last Interview between Lee and Jackson” or “First Interview
between Lee and Jackson” or “Jackson Reporting a Great Victory” or
“Jackson Apologizing for a Heavy Defeat” or “Jackson Asking Lee for a
Match.” “It tells one story and a sufficient one; for it says quite plainly and
satisfactorily, ‘Here are Lee and Jackson together.’ The artist would have
made it tell that this is Lee and Jackson’s last interview if he could have
done it. But he couldn’t, for there wasn’t any way to do it. A good legible
label is usually worth, for information, a ton of significant attitude and
expression in a historical picture.”
Royster, Charles, The Destructive War, Knopf, NY, 1991, p. 203-204.



Copyright 2006

Since its publication the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn has retained its popularity with the reading public; It’s theme, Motive, Moral and Plot, though, have eluded acclaiming readers, skeptical detractors and literary critics. This confusion was the author’s who wanted the book to sell.

Slavery, Southern society and the Mississippi River seemingly move the story. However, a river of Christianity also runs through the text. Unlike the river waters which purify Huck as Jim and he float into slaveland, Southern constructions of faith, hope and charity from 1 Corinthians 13 are not Christian. This thematic flow gives the novel an ironic soul, making the Adventures a tract against religion as it is practiced.

Samuel Langhorne Clemens, Mark Twain, was raised a Presbyterian, and he was well acquainted with the King James version of the Bible and other works of English protestantism. Despite wide circulation of those works, Southerners had religion but little Christianity. Huck notes the,

pretty ornery preaching – all about brotherly love and such-like tiresomeness, but everybody said it was a good sermon, and they all talked it over, going home, and had such a powerful lot to say about faith, and good works, and free grace, and preforeordestination, and I don’t know what all, that it did seem to me to be one of the roughest Sundays I had run across yet.(147)

Huck’s questioning comes to him naturally. Startled by Pap and quizzed, Huck reads aloud. Pap growls, First you know you’ll get religion, too.(24) Religion practiced in the South corrupts. A note warning Jim’s captors of a plan to free the slave pleads, I am one of the gang, but have got religgion and wish to quit it and lead an honest life again. (334)

Huck learned the Bible from the widow and Miss Douglas. Ye cannot serve God and mammon, Matthew 6:24. If thou wilt be perfect, go and sell that thou hast…and come and follow me. Huck gives Judge Thatcher his money in Chapter 5, and throughout the novel he never thinks he can reclaim the money and buy Jim’s freedom.

Huck seeks the more excellent way. The King James version of the Bible, 1 Corinthians 13, prescribes the conduct of a Christian:

THOUGH I speak with tongues of men and of angels, and have not charity, I am become as sounding brass, or a tinkling cymbal.

2. And though I have the gift of prophecy, and understand all mysteries, and all knowledge; and though I have all faith, so that I could remove mountains, and have not charity, I am nothing.

3. And though I bestow all my goods to feed the poor, and though I give my body to be burned, and have not charity, it profiteth me nothing.

4. Charity suffereth long, and is kind; charity envieth not; charity vaunteth not itself, is not puffed up,

5. Doth not behave itself unseemly, seeketh not her own, is not easily provoked, thinketh no evil;

6. Rejoiceth not in iniquity, but rejoiceth in the truth;

7. Beareth all things, believeth all things, hopeth all things, endureth all things.

8. Charity never faileth: but whether there be prophecies, they shall fail; whether there be tongues, they shall cease; whether there be knowledge, it shall vanish away.

9. For we know in part, and we prophesy in part.

10. But when that which is perfect is come, than that which is in part shall be done away.

11. When I was a child, I spake as a child, I understood as a child, I thought as a child: but when I became a man, I put away childish things.

12, For now we see through a glass, darkly; but then face to face: now I know in part; but then shall I know even as also I am known.

13. And now abideth faith, hope, charity, these three; but the greatest of these is charity.

One must act with charity, a Christian love which burns into the heart and pilots all action. A mere act of liturgy, prophecy or charity without the requisite state of mind and heart is nothing. Christians must not be envious, boastful, conceited, proud, rude, selfish or vengeant; they must seek truth and ride the joy of charity overflowing with kindness while withstanding suffering. Throughout the Adventures Huck narrates without judging; he practices faith, hope and charity and learns the greatest of these is charity.


Faith is evinced through prayer and professions to piety: …You had to wait for the widow to tuck down her head and grumble a little over the victuals...(2) Then Miss Watson she took me in the closet and prayed, but nothing come of it.(13) When the King and Duke commenced their swindle of the heirs of Peter Wilkes, …they kneeled down and rested their foreheads on the coffin, and let on to pray, all to their selves.(212)

A preacher at the camp meeting aroused the crowd with imaginary visions of the Holy Ghost. They shout[ed] and cri[ed]… tears running down their faces; singing and flinging…themselves down on the straw, just crazy and wild.(172) And the king got agoing (172) about being a pirate in the Indian Ocean, collecting eighty-seven dollars and seventy-five cents. And then he fetched away a three-gallon jug of whisky, too,that he found under a wagon…(174) Slaveowner/preacher, Silas Phelps come in every day or two to pray with Jim, the captured, runaway slave.(309)

But prayer described in the novel mostly departs from Scripture. Matthew, Chapter 6:5-6 directs,

And when thou prayest, thou shalt not be as the hypocrites are: for they love to pray standing in the synagogues and in the corners of the streets, that they may be seen of men. Verily, I say unto you, They have their reward. 

But thou, when thou prayest, enter into they closet, and when thou has shut the door, pray to thy Father, which is in secret; and thy Father which seeth in secret shall reward thee openly.

Southerners manipulated faith. The widow

…learned me about Moses and the bulrushes, and I was in a sweat to find all about him; but by and by she let it out Moses had been dead a considerable long time; so then I didn’t care no more about him; because I don’t take no stock in dead people.(2)...I wanted to smoke…She said it was a mean practice and wasn’t clean…Here she was a-bothering about Moses, which was no kin to her, and no use to anybody…yet finding a power of fault with me for doing a thing that had some good in it. And she took snuff too; of course that was all right, because she done it herself.(3)

The king’s duds was…all black, and he did look real swell and starchy…when he’d take off his new white beaver and make a bow and do a smile, he looked that grand and good and pious that you’d say he had walked right out of the ark, and maybe was old Leviticus himself.(204)

The king and duke…took on about that dead tanner [Peter Wilkes] like they’d lost the twelve disciples.(212)

Despite biblical interdiction, Acts 17:22, superstition of white people throughout the novel resembles the superstition of black folk. Huck thought differently, I judged that all that stuff was only just one of Tom Sawyer’s lies…It had all the marks of a Sunday school.(17)

Southerners have no greater understanding of Christianity than the sensibility of the slave, Jim. The commandment, Ye shall not steal, is modified: …the best way would be for us to pick out two or three things…and say we wouldn’t borrow them any wouldn’t be no harm to borrow the others…(80) About Solomon and his million wives, Jim poses, Now I want to ast you: .what use is a half a chile? I wouldn’t give a dern for a million un um…He as soon chop a chile in two as a cat. Dey’s plenty mo’. A chile or two, mo’er less, warn’t no consekens to Sollermun…(95,96)

Southern whites ignore the tenets of Christianity. The Grangerfords and Shepardsons go to the same church yet feud: If you notice, most folks don’t go to church only when they’ve got to; but a hog is different.(148)

Educated whites disregard the creed. A new judge leading Pap to temperance fails: The judge he felt kind of sore. He said he reckoned a body could reform the old man with a shot-gun, maybe, but he didn’t know no other way.(28) Silas Phelps …was a-studying over…Acts seventeen…(316), an anti-slavery verse, yet Phelps remained a slaveowner.


These professions of faith accompany the revelation of charity in chapter three. Relying on Mark 11:24 [Therefore, I say unto you, What things so ever ye desire, when ye pray, believe that ye shall receive them, and ye shall have them.], Miss Watson tells Huck, to pray every day and whatever I asked for I would get it. But it warn’t so…Once I got a fish-line, but no hooks. It warn’t any good to me without the hooks.(13) Miss Watson chides the foolishness. Huck asks the widow who tells him …the thing a body could get by praying for it was “spiritual gifts”(13) of 1 Corinthians 14. Benefits of these gifts elude Huck, especially after the widow explained, …what she meant I must help other people, and do everything I could for other people, and look out for them all the time, and never think about myself,..I went out in the woods and turned it over in my mind a long time, but I couldn’t see no advantage about it – except for the other people…(13-14)

Both the widow and Miss Watson urge Huck to practice charity but differ in description of the rewards. The widow’s version is to lead Huck so his actions more closely relate to public benefits of conforming to Southern society. The widow described make a body’s mouth water.(14) When Huck dirtied his clothes after a night out …the widow she didn’t scold, but only cleaned off the grease and clay and looked so sorry that I thought I would behave a while if I could.(13)

[B]ut maybe the next day Miss Watson would take hold and knock it [the widow’s providence] all down again. (14) Miss Watson demanded individual, internal reformation of character to make Huck Christian, and she was direct: Well, I got a good going-over in the morning, from old Miss Watson, on account of my clothes;(13) Miss Watson, told me all about the bad place, and I said I wished I was there. She got mad…She said it was wicked to say what I said;…she was going to live so as to go to the good place. Well, I couldn’t see no advantage in going where she was going…(3-4)

Listening to each woman Huck…could see that there was two Providences, and a poor chap would stand considerable show with the widow’s Providence, but if Miss Watson’s got him there warn’t no help for him any more. I thought it all out, and reckoned I would belong to the widow’s, if he wanted me, though I couldn’t make out how he was agoing to be any better off then than what he was before…(14)

Huck favors the widow’s Providence. Miss Watson drives him away. She wants to sell Jim, separating him from familar surroundings and family. Helping Jim escape bothers Huck (52-53, 124-125, 127-128), but he passes over the ramifications as they float South where Huck will learn charity and receive spiritual gifts.

He witnesses events…to make a body ashamed of the human race.(210) The legal system tolerates Pap going for Huck’s money.(Chapters 5,6) Boastful boatmen are …chicken-livered cowards. (111) The Grangerfords and Shepardson families feud. (Chapters 17,18) After Boggs is killed and Colonel Sherburn defies the mob, he notes: If any real lynching’s going to be done, it will be done in the dark, southern fashion; and when they come, they’ll bring their masks…(191) Southerners suffer frauds in the camp meeting, hold overly romantic notions and are duped by the king and duke, giving new significance to the reference about hypocrites who pray in public:…Verily, I say unto you, They have their reward. (Matthew 6:5)

Huck is edgy when the king trusts…in Providence to lead him the profitable way – meaning the devil(204), Huck reckons. [B]eing brothers to a rich dead man, and representatives of furrin heirs that’s got left, is the line for you and me, Bilge. Thish-yer comes of trust’n to Providence.(214)

In Chapter 28 Huck balks, hides the money in the coffin and tells Mary Jane about the scam. He knows he cannot join the widow’s Providence be good and civilized and receive the rewards of Southern society. He tells Mary Jane: …I’d be all right, but there’d be another person that you don’t know about who’d be in big trouble.(240)

Mary Jane responds, Good-bye, I’m going to do everything just as you’ve told me;…and I’ll pray for you too! Pray for me! I reckoned if she knowed me she’d take job that was more nearer her size… and if ever I’d a thought it would do any good for me to pray for her, blamed if I wouldn’t a done it or bust.(244)

In Chapter 31 the king takes a bounty for Jim, a runaway slave. Jim is imprisoned. Huck must choose. The widow instructed him about “spiritual gifts,” and Huck puts them to the test within the Widow’s Providence, again. Seeking absolution, he considers telling her by letter where Jim is:

…it hit me all of a sudden that here was the plain hand of Providence slapping me in face and letting me know my wickedness was being watched all the time from up there in heaven, whilst I was stealing a poor old woman’s nigger that hadn’t ever done me no harm, and now was showing me that’s One that’s always on the lookout, and ain’t agoing to allow no such miserable doings to go only just so fur and no further, I most dropped in my tracks, I was so scared…It made me shiver. And I about made up my mind to pray; and see if I couldn’t try to quit being the kind of boy I was, and be better. So I kneeled down. But the words wouldn’t come. Why wouldn’t they? It warn’t no use to try and hide it from Him. Nor from me, neither. I knowed very well why they wouldn’t come. It was because my heart warn’t right; it was because I warn’t square; it was because i was playing double…You can’t pray a lie – I found that out.(268-269)

But Huck doesn’t send the letter because he has internalized the problem of man facing God, thus taking his faith private. He sits in the wigwam of the raft. It – the wigwam and the dilemma – it was a close place like the closet Miss Watson took him into in Chapter Three. Huck ponders whether to follow Christian charity, to help Jim and do everything he could for Jim, look out for Jim and not think about himself.(13) He resolves to rescue Jim, thereby choosing the Providence described by Miss Watson. But he still believes he is controlled by the Providence described by the widow. Southern society will condemn him. Huck says, All right, then, I’ll go to hell…(271)

Clemens made the structure of the Adventures a cross. Faith, hope and charity on the upward pole intersect Southern civilization of whites and Negroes in the Mississippi Valley:








                                                   S O U T H E R N  S O C I E T Y











When Huck becomes charitable, he finds himself at the junction of the cross. The only character who is charitable and Christian throughout the story is Jim. After Jim’s capture, Huck reflects in the wigwam and voices a prayer:

I see Jim before me, all the time, in the day, and in the night-time, sometimes moonlight sometimes storms, and we a floating along, talking, and singing, and laughing. But somehow I couldn’t seem to strike no places to harden me against him, but only the other kind. I’d see him standing my watch on to of his’n, stead of calling me – so I could go on sleeping; and see him how glad he was when I come back out of the fog; and when I come to him again in the swamp, up there where the feud was; and such-like times; and would always call me honey, and pet me, and do everything he could think of for me, and how good he always was; and at last I struck the time I saved him by telling the men we had small-pox aboard, and he was so grateful, and said I was the best friend old Jim ever had in the world, and the only one’s he’s got now;…(270)

Jim is a slave, and in the novel it is he who is nailed on the cross. Implicit in the narrative are questions: Should Huck save Jim. Should Huck attempt to save the nigger on the cross. Should Huck work himself...up and go and humble [himself] to a nigger: Huck…done it, and I warn’t ever sorry for it afterwards, neither.(105) It is inexplicable that today’s detractors of Huckleberry Finn, like ante-bellum Southerners, don’t believe in humbling themselves to the nigger on the cross and dispute Huck’s decision to save him.

Putting Jim on the cross is controversial, but Clemens advanced the idea in Huck’s prayer. In doing so he mocked Southern whites, the camp meetings and the glory of evangelists’ timeless voices describing appearances of Jesus Christ: “I see Jesus before me, all the time, in the day, in the night-time, sometimes moonlight, sometimes storms…” Moonlight is necessary because Southerners cannot see Jesus in the dark.


At the beginning of the novel, the widow wants to sivilize Huckleberry. After charity is explicated in Chapter 31, the remaining eleven chapters exhaust hope found in the widow’s Providence, southern civilization. Tom Sawyer returns to the story, and he conceives a plot to free Jim. But Huck was bothered that Tom, …a boy that was respectable, and well brung up; and had character to lose(292) would help the slave escape. Huck didn’t know it was Tom’s sport; the widow had died and freed Jim in her will.(358) Again, Huck is homeless. He subordinates himself and his new faith to the tomfoolery: He[Tom Sawyer] was always just that particular. Full of principle.(307) Jim, too, recognized the folly but…allowed we was white folks and knowed better than him.(309)

About the escape and Jim’s recapture, Southerners blather about the complexity of the escape scheme and wonder who had done the planning and why – conversations with little bearing to reality.(Chapter 41) Tom Sawyer was proud of the adventure and especially the bullet he took in the leg, which he wore around his neck.(362)

At book’s end Huck heads for the freedom of the Territory; otherwise Aunt Sally is…going to adopt me and sivilize and I can’t stand it. I’ve been there before.(362)

Tom Sawyer was published in 1876, the same year Clemens was feverishly writing Huckleberry Finn. He had more material about the river and Southern society than he could use in one book. The jarring impact of the Civil War was fresh. Clemens had lost his chosen profession of riverboat captain. He set aside the Adventures until 1879-1880, when he wrote a bit more. Following a trip up the Mississippi in 1883, Clemens pumped out Life on the Mississippi detailing the downside of Southern society and Huckleberry Finn in 1884. These books, along with Pudd’nhead Wilson’s exposition of the black man’s plight, 1894, are a trilogy. The Adventures is the hinge book integrating both themes – Southern society and race.

As a novelist Clemens had responsibilities to art and to society. The trilogy was his response to the War – expressions of despair that lessons of the horrible slaughter were forgotten or never learned. The South had not changed. Reconstruction had failed. Slaves, now free Negroes, were drowning in tides of caste and race supported by the civilization which fueled Southern war fever in 1861.

But Mark Twain’s dilemma was laying down camouflage for the anti-religious theme in the novel. By this text he had tied the Adventures to the most widely book read in the English language, the Bible. He released Adventures of Huckleberry Finn as a children’s story, a sequel to the popular Tom Sawyer. The same characters appear at the beginning of the Adventures, but the similarity ends with writing style and content. Later, more Tom Sawyer/Huckleberry Finn sequels were published which had nothing to do with the thematic content of Huckleberry Finn. Next, Twain approved original illustrations which show the protagonist as a meek boy of eight or ten years, not the savvy adolescent telling the narrative.

Also some captions to the illustrations are misleading e.g. “thinking” (270). Finally, Twain admonishes readers in a prefatory note from taking the book seriously:

NOTICE – PERSONS attempting to find a Motive in this narrative will be prosecuted; persons attempting to find a Moral in it will be banished; persons attempting go find a Plot in it will be shot. By Order of the Author, Per G.G., Chief of Ordnance.

Yet the lesson of 1 Corinthians 13 are not forsaken. Faith and charity abide, but there is no hope in Southern civilization in American civilization. Hope is left to the future. For six score years readers have recognized the obvious and have been sidetracked by Mark Twain’s counsel to seek neither motive, moral or plot. Our future is to discover and understand the motive, moral and plot in the Adventures, as Samuel Langhorne Clemens wrote them, and to live accordingly.


1. The numbers in the text are pages from the corrected, Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, University of California Press, Berkeley, 2001.

2. This text is largely the same as appears in Criticism, Essays, Stories, iBookstore, Michael Ulin Edwards, FREE.


Autobiography of Mark Twain, vol. 2, University of California Press, Berkeley, 2013.

Passages in this volume of the Autobiography will be found in no other book. Twain himself doubts whether any human being can be original, but this volume belies his claim. Twain is. Incidents of first impression and first expression exist therein.

While in Europe in 1896, Twain’s first daughter died in Connecticut. By the summer of 1902 his wife was in bad health. Later that year his youngest daughter had a life threatening illness (104 degree temperature; doctor sleeping in next room). The fear in Twain’s household wa wife would learn of daughter’s illness, and she would be carried off. 

Twain had a third daughter, Clara, who primarily took care of the wife. Twain himself riles wife too much; his daily time with her is limited. Clara makes up a wonderful, social, engaging social life for the daughter near death. Wife’s spirits rise. These fabrications are carried on for three months. Twain writes two letters which are included in the text. [There must be more letters.]

Twain details the life of lies to stating the sick daughter’s happy life, and that they are relayed to everyone in the household – anyone who might come within earshot of wife – must know and speak the lies. Presumably wife remembers all the lies, and so must everyone else. There are near misses. There are mistakes, quickly retorted and corrected or excused, including the schedule of a local train.

Twain observed the whole scenario could be viewed as absurd and humorous except it is real, and it involves his family. The reader can infer what Mark Twain, writer, is doing: To protect himself, Samuel Langhorne Clemens, writes a full, complete and honest account of the activities in the house and about the sick daughter’s social life. Once on paper the events are removed, in a medium where Twain is a master. It is his only defense against two more deaths in his immediate family.

More astounding was the visit of William Dean Howells during the summer 1902 prior to the grave illnesses. Howells adumbrates a story about an ill mother and then her daughter gets sick. Both were cared for by two aunts. The aunts don’t want to lie; it is a sin. But they sin every day to keep the mother’s spirits up, even after the daughter has died: The mother believes the daughter is having a wonderful social life for the first time in her life. The mother also dies. Although the aunts regret sinning, they realize it was necessary.

Mark Twain wrote that story, Was it Heaven? Or Hell? It was published by Harper’s Monthly, when Twain’s wife and daughter were gravely ill. Both of them recovered.

The Autobiography has gems about writing. Spelling: “Majestically lawless.” Twain writes about “style,” “a mysterious thing,” including involuntary “indiscretions,” ofttimes an unwanted, “trademark.” And proofreading – the message is sometimes the editor must do everything himself: Twain tells an anecdote of Bret Harte’s trying to correct “chastity” for “charity.”

An observation about human beings came out which pertains to writing. The sort of human being one is will result in the type of writer one becomes. Bret Harte is used as the example, and Twain does not like him. Harte is capable, but is also acerbic, witless, disloyal, unemotional and selfish. Flickers of brilliance come from Harte’s writings, but mostly Harte is pushing the pen. 

The Autobiography does not analyze the heart of writers generally. It raises the issue by example, the personality and the abilities and capabilities of a writer [or any artist]. Those traits and in life, circumstances, realizations, choices and adjustments, bring very individual reflections and come after one consciously mulls, considers, weighs and judges. When those forces and the results arrive unannounced, the writer is in trouble.

“Circumstance” raises another short significant issue. Twain notes, like a diary entry, attending a banquet where Elihu Root, Secretary of State, addressed circumstances as changing the way Americans viewed government and their own freedoms. [This is my summary, not part of the Autobiography.] In many ways the more Americans are brought together as one people in one nation and are supposed to think the same way – whether by innovation, culture, society or law – the more Americans will lose the distinction of being a nation of individuals. 

Twain alights on celebrity, by commenting on an article about Olive Logan. She was a female lecturer in the lyceum days. Olive had nothing to say and couldn’t have said it if she did. She was on the platform “to show off her clothes,” a “living fashion plate.” She manufactured a reputation, writing “innate, affected valueless stuff,” and marrying “a penny-liner,” a man who was paid a penny a line to get small items, true or untrue, in newspapers.

The newspapers would appear, and next came the revelation: Readers who “had not been quite aware of [the celebrity] before,” now knew. There were no explanations, just recounting daily or weekly activities, like a Facebook page or a Twitter feed: “Her name was familiar to everybody…and there wasn’t a human being in the entire United States who could answer if you asked him, ‘What is her fame based on?’ ‘What has she done?’ You would paralyze a person by asking that question.”

[The primary difference between Olive Logan then and “celebrities” today is, today Americans can now say the woman took off her clothes, or did explicit acts, and published them.]

Sadly, the life of Olive Logan wound down like the lives today. She is near deaf. Her current husband, a generation younger than she,  always drank and neglected her. She “could no longer write.” The couple was impoverished.

Twain mentions other fallibilities of the American system. He complains that the United States of America is an Unpolite Nation without remembering or mentioning that he lives in and about New York City. He notes the pace of America, “come step lively,” differs from the pace elsewhere. He mentions American diplomats and counsels, “chuckleheads,” sent “to some part of this planet because [they were] not needed in this country.”

Many passages are devoted to copyright issues and some (purported) Congressional testimony. In Twain’s day the copyright laws were antiquated and woefully inadequate. Readers other than historians, legal historians, Twain devotees and intellectual property fiends will find these parts laborious. But Twain was prominent in the push to change the laws. 

Speaking from the grave, Twain likewise discourses on religion. His views are well presented. His is not an attack on faith itself, but largely on the practice of religion and man’s distortion of faith. That is always the grind. There are distilled, more perceptive presentations of these arguments in Twain’s literature: Huckleberry Finn, The War Prayer, The Mysterious Stranger, and elsewhere.

During the last decade of life Twain did not write much – short stories, essays and articles. He explained that he no longer wanted to pick up a pen and write a novel. The Autobiography was dictated. These is a difference in quality and complete excellence between Twain’s best books and this Autobiography. Many entries are literary, but Twain’s purpose was not literature: He wanted a conversation from himself, a one-way conversation to readers. Readers gets that. The difference between his literary efforts and the Autobiography remain, and have a lesson for today’s writers: Typing at 100 plus words per minute, printing out pages of beautiful words, trying to proofread and write something literary. Unlike Twain, most of today’s word processing entrants have never lectured to audiences, have never delivered humor, do not understand the basic simplicity of a joke, yet they are trying to work at the speed of the spoken word, like they are running their mouths to monopolize conversations with friends. 

One gift this volume of the Autobiography gives to writers is Twain’s impressions and methods of lecturing and speaking, a task he could do on an impromptu basis. This volume has also left me in an uncomfortable state of humiliation: Mark Twain could lecture better than I can write.